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Dog Strap Physiological Pants Sanitary Menstruation Panties (Lig

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Dog Strap Physiological Pants Sanitary Menstruation Panties (Lig

Coenagrionidae

Female blue riverdamsel Pseudagrion microcephalum, copyright Renjusplace.


Belongs within: Zygoptera.
Contains: Ischnura, Agriocnemis.

The Coenagrionidae are a cosmopolitan group of damselflies whose adults are commonly found skimming over still or sluggish waters (Watson & O'Farrell 1991).

Characters (from Theischinger & Hawking 2006): Usually brightly coloured, often vivid red or blue with black markings. Anal vein long; supplementary longitudinal veins absent in distal portion of wings. Larva without a median cleft on premental ligula; one to eight pairs of premental setae, three to eight pairs of palpal setae; caudal gills leaf-like, subnodate or denodate, without prominent main tracheole, held vertically.

<==Coenagrionidae [Coenagriidae]
    |--Ischnurinae [Ischnurainae] WO91
    |    |--Ischnura TH06
    |    `--Aciagrion fragile (Tillyard 1906) WO91, TH06
    |--Coenagrion TH06 [Coenagrioninae WO91]
    |    |--C. brisbanense O70
    |    |--C. haustulatum WP99
    |    |--C. lyelli (Tillyard 1913) TH06
    |    `--C. puella (Linnaeus 1758) FB03
    |--Agriocnemidinae WO91
    |    |--Agriocnemis TH06
    |    |--Argiocnemis rubescens Selys 1877 WO91, TH06
    |    `--Austrocnemis WO91
    |         |--A. maccullochi (Tillyard 1926) TH06
    |         |--A. obscura Theischinger & Watson 1991 TH06
    |         `--A. splendida (Martin 1901) TH06
    |--Amphicnemidinae WO91
    |    |--Archibasis mimetes (Tillyard 1913) WO91, TH06
    |    |--Teinobasis WO91
    |    |    |--T. ariel TH06
    |    |    `--T. rufithorax (Selys 1877) TH06
    |    `--Amphicnemis SL89
    |         |--A. ecornuta Selys Longchamps 1889 SL89
    |         |--A. furcata SL89
    |         |--A. lestoides SL89
    |         `--A. wallacii SL89
    `--Pseudagrioninae WO91
         |--Xanthagrion erythroneurum (Selys 1876) WO91, TH06
         |--Caliagrion billinghursti (Martin 1901) WO91, TH06
         |--Ceriagrion WO91
         |    |--C. aeruginosum (Brauer 1869) TH06
         |    |--C. cerinorubellum [=Agrion cerinorubellum] SL89
         |    |--C. coromandelianum (Fabr. 1798) [=Agrion coromandelianum] K00
         |    `--C. melanurum K00
         |--Austroagrion WO91
         |    |--A. cyane (Selys 1876) TH06
         |    |--A. exclamationis Campion 1915 TH06
         |    |--A. pindrina Watson 1969 TH06
         |    `--A. watsoni Lieftinck 1982 TH06
         `--Pseudagrion TH06
              |--P. aureofrons Tillyard 1906 TH06
              |--P. cingillum (Brauer 1869) TH06
              |--P. ignifer Tillyard 1906 TH06
              |--P. jedda Watson & Theischinger 1991 TH06
              |--P. lucifer Theischinger 1997 TH06
              |    |--P. l. lucifer TH06
              |    `--P. l. aureum TH06
              |--P. microcephalum (Rambur 1842) TH06
              `--P. pruinosum [=Agrion pruinosum] SL89

Coenagrionidae incertae sedis:
  Xanthocnemis zelandica (McLachlan 1873) HL02
  Pyrrhosoma nymphula (Sulzer 1776) FB03
  Hetaerina TW05
    |--H. americana TW05
    `--H. titia P74
  Argia TW05
    |--A. emma P74
    |--A. lugens P74
    `--A. vivida TW05
  Megalagrion O94
    |--M. oahuense W92
    `--M. pacificum H91
  Nehalennia speciosa (Charpentier 1840) P74, I92
  Enallagma P74
    |--E. boreale P74
    |--E. carunculatum P74
    |--E. cyathigerum P74
    `--E. praevarum P74

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[FB03] Fleck, G., G. Bechly, X. Martínez-Delclòs, E. Jarzembowski, R. Coram & A. Nel. 2003. Phylogeny and classification of the Stenophlebioptera (Odonata: Epiproctophora). Annales de la Societe Entomologique de France 39 (1): 55–93.

[HL02] Haacks, M., & A. Lehmann. 2002. Some observations on dragonflies (Insecta: Odonata) throughout New Zealand. Weta 24: 13–17.

[H91] Howarth, F. G. 1991. Environmental impacts of classical biological control. Annual Review of Entomology 36: 485–509.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[K00] Kirby, W. F. 1900. On a small collection of Odonata (dragonflies) from Hainan, collected by the late John Whitehead. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 5: 530–539, pl. 12.

[O70] O’Farrell, A. F. 1970. Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 241–261. Melbourne University Press.

[O94] Otte, D. 1994. The Crickets of Hawaii: origin, systematics and evolution. The Orthopterists' Society: The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.

[P74] Paulson, D. R. 1974. Reproductive isolation in damselflies. Systematic Zoology 23 (1): 40–49.

[SL89] Selys Longchamps, E. de. 1889. Odonates de Sumatra comprenant les espèces recueillies à Pulo Nias par M. le D.r E. Modigliani. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 444–484.

[TW05] Terry, M. D., & M. F. Whiting. 2005. Mantophasmatodea and phylogeny of the lower neopterous insects. Cladistics 21: 240–257.

[TH06] Theischinger, G., & J. Hawking. 2006. The Complete Field Guide to Dragonflies of Australia. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[WP99] Walter, D. E., & H. C. Proctor. 1999. Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[WO91] Watson, J. A. L., & A. F. O’Farrell. 1991. Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1 pp. 294–310. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[W92] Wilson, E. O. 1992. The Diversity of Life. Harvard University Press: Belknap (USA).

Isostictidae

Southern pinflies Neosticta canescens, copyright Damian White.


Belongs within: Zygoptera.

The Isostictidae are a group of dull-coloured damselflies found in Australia, New Guinea and New Caledonia (Watson & O'Farrell 1991).

Characters (from Theischinger & Hawking 2006): Slender, medium-sized to large damselflies, pale brown to dark greenish grey, rarely black, thorax and abdomen sometimes pruinose. Anal vein absent; CuP one to several cells long. Larva with at least two pairs of premental setae, premental ligula may have a median cleft; caudal gills long, distinctly nodate, apically pointed.

<==Isostictidae [Isostictinae] TH06
    |--Lithosticta macra Watson 1991 TH06
    |--Labidiosticta vallisi (Fraser 1955) TH06
    |--Isosticta simplex WO91, T09
    |--Phasmosticta O70
    |--Oristicta TH06
    |    |--O. filicola Tillyard 1913 TH06
    |    `--O. vallisi WO91
    |--Rhadinosticta TH06
    |    |--R. banksi (Tillyard 1913) [incl. R. handschini] TH06
    |    `--R. simplex (Martin 1901) TH06
    |--Austrosticta TH06
    |    |--A. fieldi Tillyard 1908 TH06
    |    |--A. frater Theischinger 1997 TH06
    |    `--A. soror Sjöstedt 1917 TH06
    |--Eurysticta TH06
    |    |--E. coolawanyah Watson 1969 TH06
    |    |--E. coomalie Watson 1991 TH06
    |    |--E. kununurra Watson 1991 TH06
    |    `--E. reevesi Theischinger 2001 TH06
    `--Neosticta TH06
         |--N. canescens Tillyard 1913 TH06
         |    |--N. c. canescens TH06
         |    `--N. c. dorrigoensis TH06
         |--N. fraseri Watson 1991 TH06
         `--N. silvarum (Sjöstedt 1917) TH06

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[O70] O’Farrell, A. F. 1970. Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 241–261. Melbourne University Press.

[TH06] Theischinger, G., & J. Hawking. 2006. The Complete Field Guide to Dragonflies of Australia. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[T09] Tillyard, R. J. 1909. Notes and exhibits. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 797–798.

[WO91] Watson, J. A. L., & A. F. O’Farrell. 1991. Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1 pp. 294–310. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

Paneurypalpidomorpha

Western river cruiser Macromia magnifica, copyright Jim Johnson.


Belongs within: Brachystigmata.
Contains: Libellulidae, Hemicorduliidae, Synthemistidae.

The Paneurypalpidomorpha are a clade of dragonflies in which the wings have the anterior margin of the hypertriangle distinctly convex, and the primary antenodals close together (Bechly & Ueda 2002).

Synapomorphies (from Bechly & Ueda 2002) Anterior margin of hypertriangle distinctly convex, especially in the hindwings, because of a basally arched MA; primary antenodal Ax1 in fore wing shifted basal of level of distal angle of discoidal triangle; Ax1 and Ax2 in both pairs of wings relatively close together with not more than one secondary antenodal crossvein between them; lestine oblique vein only 1–2 cells distad of subnodus in both pairs of wings; forewing discoidal triangle more or less transverse instead of elongate; discoidal triangles unicellular in both pairs of wings (occasionally reversed in hind wing).

<==Paneurypalpidomorpha BU02
    |--Juracordulia Bechly 1998 [Juracorduliidae] BU02
    |    `--J. schiemenzi Bechly 1998 BU02
    `--Eurypalpidomorpha BU02
         |--Valdicordulioidea BU02
         |    |--Valdicorduliidae BU02
         |    `--Araripephlebiidae BU02
         `--Eurypalpidiformia BU02
              |--Eocordulia R02 [Eocorduliidae BU02]
              |    `--E. cretacea Pritykina 1986 RJ93
              `--Libelluloidea [Paneurypalpida] BU02
                   |  i. s.: Palaeolibellula S02
                   |--Libellulidae TH06
                   |--Hemicorduliidae WO91
                   |--Synthemistidae WO91
                   |--Oxygastridae TH06
                   |    |--Hesperocordulia berthoudi Tillyard 1911 WO91, TH06
                   |    `--Oxygastra TH06
                   |--Pseudocordulia Tillyard 1909 T09 [Pseudocorduliidae TH06]
                   |    |--*P. circularis Tillyard 1909 T09
                   |    `--P. elliptica Tillyard 1913 TH06
                   |--Gomphomacromiidae [Gomphomacromiinae] WO91
                   |    |--Gomphomacromia Brauer 1864 FB03
                   |    |    |--*G. paradoxa T09
                   |    |    `--G. volxemi T09
                   |    `--Archaeophya TH06
                   |         |--A. adamsi Fraser 1959 TH06
                   |         `--A. magnifica Theischinger & Watson 1978 TH06
                   |--Cordulephyidae [Cordulephyinae] FB03
                   |    |--Neocordulia TH06
                   |    `--Cordulephya TH06
                   |         |--*C. pygmaea Selys 1870 T09, TH06
                   |         |--C. bidens Sjöstedt 1917 TH06
                   |         |--C. divergens Tillyard 1917 TH06
                   |         `--C. montana Tillyard 1911 TH06
                   |--Urothemistidae [Macrodiplactidae, Urothemistinae] TH06
                   |    |--Macrodiplax cora (Kaup 1867) TH06
                   |    |--Urothemis TH06
                   |    |    |--U. aliena Selys 1878 TH06
                   |    |    `--U. sanguinea [=Libellula sanguinea; incl. L. signata] SL89
                   |    `--Aethriamanta TH06
                   |         |--A. circumsignata Selys 1897 TH06
                   |         `--A. nymphaeae Lieftinck 1949 TH06
                   |--Macromiidae [Macromiinae] GE05
                   |    |--Pseudomacromia [Pseudomacromiidae] GE05
                   |    |    `--P. sensibilis Carle & Wighton 1990 RJ93
                   |    `--Macromia TH06
                   |         |--M. cincta SL89
                   |         |--M. clio Ris 1916 I92
                   |         |--M. kubokaiya Asahina 1964 I92
                   |         |--M. magnifica A99
                   |         |--M. splendens T09
                   |         |--M. tillyardi Martin 1906 TH06
                   |         |--M. urania Ris 1916 I92
                   |         |--M. viridescens Tillyard 1911 TH06
                   |         `--M. westwoodii SL89
                   |--Corduliidae [Cordulinae] WO91
                   |    |--Pentathemis membranulata Karsch 1890 TH06
                   |    |--Metaphya tillyardi Ris 1913 TH06
                   |    |--Dorocordulia A07
                   |    |--Epitheca P74
                   |    |--Helocordulia P74
                   |    |--Neurocordulia P74
                   |    |--Somatochlora A07
                   |    |--Cordulia aenea K01
                   |    |--Didymops A07
                   |    |--Epicordulia A07
                   |    |--Tetragoneuria A07
                   |    |--*Neophya rutherfordi T09
                   |    `--Syncordulia T09
                   `--Austrocorduliidae TH06
                        |--Apocordulia macrops Watson 1980 TH06
                        |--Austrophya Tillyard 1909 TH06, T09
                        |    `--*A. mystica Tillyard 1909 T09
                        |--Lathrocordulia TH06
                        |    |--L. garrisoni Theischinger & Watson 1991 TH06
                        |    `--L. metallica Tillyard 1911 TH06
                        |--Micromidia TH06
                        |    |--M. atrifrons (McLachlan 1883) TH06
                        |    |--M. convergens Theischinger & Watson 1978 TH06
                        |    `--M. rodericki Fraser 1959 TH06
                        `--Austrocordulia Tillyard 1908 T09
                             |--*A. refracta Tillyard 1909 T09
                             |    |--A. r. refracta TH06
                             |    `--A. r. jurzitzai TH06
                             |--A. leonardi Theischinger 1973 TH06
                             `--A. territoria Theischinger & Watson 1978 TH06

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A07] Anderson, T. M. 2007. An assessment of water mite parasitism of dragonflies based on museum collections. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 61–69. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[A99] Ax, P. 1999. Das System der Metazoa II. Ein Lehrbuch der phylogenetischen Systematik. Gustav Fisher Verlag: Stuttgart (translated: 2000. Multicellular Animals: The phylogenetic system of the Metazoa vol. 2. Springer).

[BU02] Bechly, G., & K. Ueda. 2002. The first fossil record and first New World record for the dragonfly clade Chlorogomphida (Insecta: Odonata: Anisoptera: Araripechlorogomphidae n. fam.) from the Crato Limestone (Lower Cretaceous, Brazil). Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde Serie B (Geologie und Paläontologie) 328: 1–11.

[FB03] Fleck, G., G. Bechly, X. Martínez-Delclòs, E. Jarzembowski, R. Coram & A. Nel. 2003. Phylogeny and classification of the Stenophlebioptera (Odonata: Epiproctophora). Annales de la Societe Entomologique de France 39 (1): 55–93.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[K01] Klapálek, F. 1901. Neuropteroidák [Neuropteroiden]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 203–221. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[P74] Paulson, D. R. 1974. Reproductive isolation in damselflies. Systematic Zoology 23 (1): 40–49.

[R02] Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2002. Special features of the study of fossil insects. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 8–12. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[SL89] Selys Longchamps, E. de. 1889. Odonates de Sumatra comprenant les espèces recueillies à Pulo Nias par M. le D.r E. Modigliani. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 444–484.

[S02] Sinitshenkova, N. D. 2002. Ecological history of the aquatic insects. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 388–426. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[TH06] Theischinger, G., & J. Hawking. 2006. The Complete Field Guide to Dragonflies of Australia. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[T09] Tillyard, R. J. 1909. On some remarkable Australian Corduliinae, with descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 737–751, pls 21–22.

[WO91] Watson, J. A. L., & A. F. O’Farrell. 1991. Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1 pp. 294–310. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

Brachystigmata

Male (above) and female Chlorogomphus magnificus, copyright Wildan Ardani.


Belongs within: Cavilabiata.
Contains: Paneurypalpidomorpha.

The Brachystigmata are a clade of dragonflies that mostly have fairly short pterostigmata in the wings (Bechly & Ueda 2002).

Synapomorphies (from Bechly & Ueda 2002): Wings with relatively short pterostigmata that cover only 1–3 complete cells (reversed in Libellulinae); “gaff” (= basal CuA before its branching) in hind wing strongly prolonged and very straight in the groundplan (sigmoidal in Eurypalpidomorpha); area between MP and CuA basally widened with more than one row of cells (reversed in some subclades); terminal branch of CuAa secondarily branched on CuA (inapplicable whe CuAa is secondarily unbranched); RP3/4 and MA strictly parallel up to the hind margin; area between RP2 and IR2 distally distinctly widened, with more than one cell row in the distal half (sometimes reversed).

<==Brachystigmata BU02
    |--Nannogomphidae BU02
    `--Paucipostnodalia BU02
         |--Prohemeroscopus Bechly et al. 1998 [Prohemeroscopidae] BU02
         |    |--*P. jurassicus BU02
         |    `--P. kuehnapfeli BU02
         `--Eubrachystigmata BU02
              |--Hemeroscopus R02 [Hemeroscopidae BU02]
              |    `--H. baissicus Pritykina 1977 R02
              `--Neobrachystigmata BU02
                   |--Paneurypalpidomorpha BU02
                   `--Chlorogomphida BU02
                        |--Araripechlorogomphus Bechly & Ueda 2002 [Araripechlorogomphidae] BU02
                        |    `--*A. muratai Bechly & Ueda 2002 BU02
                        `--Chlorogomphoidea BU02
                             |--Chloropetaliidae [Chloropetaliinae] BU02
                             `--Chlorogomphus SL89 [Chlorogomphinae BU02]
                                  |--C. brevistigma I92
                                  |    |--C. b. brevistigma I92
                                  |    `--C. b. okinawensis Ishida 1964 I92
                                  |--C. brunneus Oguma 1926 I92
                                  |    |--C. b. brunneus I92
                                  |    |--C. b. costalis I92
                                  |    `--C. b. keramensis Asahina 1972 I92
                                  |--C. hyalinus SL89
                                  |--C. iriomotensis Ishida 1972 I92
                                  |--C. magnificus SL89
                                  `--C. papilio RD77

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BU02] Bechly, G., & K. Ueda. 2002. The first fossil record and first New World record for the dragonfly clade Chlorogomphida (Insecta: Odonata: Anisoptera: Araripechlorogomphidae n. fam.) from the Crato Limestone (Lower Cretaceous, Brazil). Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde Serie B (Geologie und Paläontologie) 328: 1–11.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[R02] Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2002. Special features of the study of fossil insects. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 8–12. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[SL89] Selys Longchamps, E. de. 1889. Odonates de Sumatra comprenant les espèces recueillies à Pulo Nias par M. le D.r E. Modigliani. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 444–484.

Palaeoptera

Reconstructed wings of Lycocercus goldenbergi, from Kukalová (1969).


Belongs within: Pterygota.
Contains: Panephemeroptera, Odonatoptera, Diaphanopterodea, Megasecoptera, Eugereonoidea, Spilapteroidea.

The Palaeoptera are a group of insects in which the wings are ancestrally held extending laterally from the body at rest and cannot be folded back flat over the abdomen. They include the modern mayflies and dragonflies, together with the Palaeodictyoptera, a group of usually large (sometimes extremely large) plant-sucking insects known from the latest Early Carboniferous to the Late Permian (Sinitshenkova 2002).

<==Palaeoptera SBG11
    |--Hydropalaeoptera [Syntonopterida, Syntonopterodea] SBG11
    |    |  i. s.: Aedoeophasma anglica R02
    |    |--Triplosoba [Protephemerida, Protephemeroptera, Triplosobida, Triplosobidae] SBG11
    |    |    `--*T. pulchella R02
    |    |--Panephemeroptera SBG11
    |    |--Odonatoptera SBG11
    |    `--Bojophlebia [Bojophlebiidae] SBG11
    |         `--B. prokopi SBG11
    `--Palaeodictyopteroidea [Dictyoneuridea, Palaeodictyopterida] GC12
         |  i. s.: Namuroningxiidae [Namuronigxiidae] SBG11
         |--+--Diaphanopterodea GE05
         |  `--Megasecoptera GE05
         `--Palaeodictyoptera [Dictyoneurida, Paleodictyoptera] GE05
              |  i. s.: Rochdalia parkeri K-P91
              |         Idoptilus onisciformis K-P83
              |         Stenodictya lobata GE05
              |         Mazothairos enormis GE05, K-P91
              |         Moravia grandis GE05
              |         Permoneuridae RJ93
              |         Straeleniella [Straeleniellidae] RJ93
              |           `--S. namurensis Laurentiaux-Vieira & Laurentiaux 1986 RJ93
              |--Frankenholziina S02
              |    |--Frankenholzioidea S02
              |    |    |--Psychroptilus Z02 [Psychroptilidae S02]
              |    |    `--+--Dictyoneurellidae S02
              |    |       `--Frankenholzia RJ93 [Frankenholziidae S02]
              |    |            `--F. culmanni RJ93
              |    `--Arcioneuroidea S02
              |         |--Arcioneuridae S02
              |         |--Elmoboriidae S02
              |         `--+--Eubrodia Carpenter 1967 [Eubrodiidae] S02
              |            `--Eukuloja [Eukulojidae] S02
              |                 `--E. cubitalis S02
              `--Dictyoneurina S02
                   |  i. s.: Archaeoptilidae S02
                   |         Lithoptilidae S02
                   |         Mecynoptera tuberculata S02
                   |--+--Eugereonoidea S02
                   |  `--Dictyoneuroidea S02
                   |       |--Peromapteridae S02
                   |       |--Saarlandiidae S02
                   |       `--Dictyoneuridae S02
                   |            |--Palaeoneura qiligouensis Hon 1985 S02, RJ93
                   |            `--Schmidtopteron adictyon RJ93
                   `--+--+--Calvertielloidea S02
                      |  |    |--Mongolodictyidae S02
                      |  |    `--Sharovia [Calvertiellidae] S02
                      |  |         `--S. sojanica S02
                      |  `--Breyerioidea S02
                      |       |--Stobsiidae S02
                      |       |--Cryptoveniidae S02
                      |       `--Breyeriidae S02
                      |            |--Jugobreyeria sippelorum Brauckmann et al. 1985 RJ93
                      |            `--Breyeria boulei RJ93
                      `--+--Spilapteroidea S02
                         `--Homoiopteroidea S02
                              |--Heolidae S02
                              `--Homoiopteridae S02
                                   |--Parathesoneura carpenteri Sharov & Sinichenkova 1977 K-P83
                                   |--Mazonopterum wolfforum Kukalová-Peck & Richardson 1983 K-P83
                                   |--Ostrava nigra (Kukalová 1960) K-P83
                                   |--Adolarryia bairdi Kukalová-Peck & Richardson 1983 K-P83
                                   |--Monsteropterum moravicum Kukalová-Peck 1972 K-P83
                                   |--Homoioptera S02
                                   |    |--H. gigantea RJ93
                                   |    `--H. vorhallensis S02 [=Homaloneura vorhallensis Z02]
                                   |--Thesoneura [Thesoneuridae] SBG11
                                   `--Lycocercus [Lycocercidae] SBG11
                                        |--L. goldenbergi RJ93
                                        `--L. pictus SBG11

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[GC12] Garrouste, R., G. Clément, P. Nel, M. S. Engel, P. Grandcolas, C. D'Haese, L. Lagebro, J. Denayer, P. Gueriau, P. Lafaite, S. Olive, C. Prestianni & A. Nel. 2012. A complete insect from the Late Devonian period. Nature 488: 82–85.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[K-P83] Kukalová-Peck, J. 1983. Origin of the insect wing and wing articulation from the arthropodan leg. Canadian Journal of Zoology 61: 1618–1669.

[K-P91] Kukalová-Peck, J. 1991. Fossil history and the evolution of hexapod structures. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1 pp. 141–179. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[R02] Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2002. Cohors Libelluliformes Laicharting, 1781 (=Subulicornes Latreille, 1807, =Hydropalaeoptera Rohdendorf, 1968). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 85–89. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S02] Sinitshenkova, N. D. 2002. Superorder Dictyoneuridea Handlirsch, 1906 (=Palaeodictyopteroidea). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 115–124. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[SBG11] Staniczek, A. H., G. Bechly & R. J. Godunko. 2011. Coxoplectoptera, a new fossil order of Palaeoptera (Arthropoda: Insecta), with comments on the phylogeny of the stem group of mayflies (Ephemeroptera). Insect Systematics and Evolution 42: 101–138.

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Ecological history of the terrestrial insects. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 331–388. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

Square Signal Generator 1-150KHz PWM Pulse Frequency Cycle Duty

Guadeloupe stick insects Lamponius guerini, copyright Drägüs.


Belongs within: Phasmatodea.

The Pseudophasmatidae are a group of stick insects in which the femora of the fore legs have four distinct edges.

<==Pseudophasmatidae Z04
    |--Pseudophasmatinae WBM03
    |    |--Pseudophasma rufipes WBM03
    |    |--Paraphasma rufipes TW05
    |    `--Anisomorpha WBM03
    |         |--A. buprestoides K91
    |         `--A. ferruginea WBM03
    `--Xerosomatinae Z04
         |--Xerosomatini Z04
         `--Hesperophasmatini Z04
              |--Hesperophasma Rehn 1904 Z04
              |--Rhynchacris Redtenbacher 1908 Z04
              |--Taraxippus Moxey 1971 Z04
              |--Agamemnon Z04
              `--Lamponius Stål 1875 [incl. Antillophilus Carl 1913, Hypocyrtus Redtenbacher 1908] Z04
                   |--*L. guerini (Saussure 1868) [=Pygirhynchus guerini] Z04
                   |--*Antillophilus’ brevitarsus Carl 1913 Z04
                   `--*Hypocyrtus’ substrumosus Redtenbacher 1908 Z04

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[K91] Key, K. H. L. 1991. Phasmatodea (stick-insects). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1 pp. 394–404. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[TW05] Terry, M. D., & M. F. Whiting. 2005. Mantophasmatodea and phylogeny of the lower neopterous insects. Cladistics 21: 240–257.

[WBM03] Whiting, M. F., S. Bradler & T. Maxwell. 2003. Loss and recovery of wings in stick insects. Nature 421: 264–267.

[Z04] Zompro, O. 2004. A key to the stick-insect genera of the ‘Anareolatae’ of the New World, with descriptions of several new taxa (Insecta: Phasmatodea). Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment 39 (2): 133–144.

Used NSK M-YSB2020KN001+ESB-YSB2020AB300 by DHL or EMS #T2742 YS

LEHIGH VALLEY RAILROAD CO. 1886
Caedicia simplex, copyright Donald Hobern.


Belongs within: Tettigonioidea.

The Phaneropterinae are a group of katydids characterised by a round, globular head, an unarmed prosternum, tibiae that are usually rectangular in cross-section, and a usually short, upcurved ovipositor (Rentz 1996).

<==Phaneropterinae R96
    |--Acripeza reticulata R96
    |--Alectoria superba R96
    |--Elephantodeta nobilis R96
    |--Torbia viridissima R96
    |--Psyra R96
    |--Paracaedicia serrata R96
    |--Ducetia japonica R96
    |--Parableta integricauda Brunner 1878 R18
    |--Aganacris micans Walker 1871 R18
    |--Stilpnochlora marginella (Serville 1839) [=Phylloptera marginella] R18
    |--Viadana myrtifolia (Linnaeus 1758) [=Gryllus (Tettigonia) myrtifolius] R18
    |--Dichopetala BM76
    |--Holochlora BM76
    |--Tylopsis lilifolia BM76, I92
    |--Amblycorypha rotundifolia BM76, G37
    |--Platylyra BM76
    |--Burgilis missionum R15
    |--Hyperophora major R15
    |--Ligocatinus olivaceus R15
    |--Homotoicha fuscopunctata R15
    |--Theudoria melanocnemis R15
    |--Ephippithytha [incl. Ochrida] R96
    |    `--E. trigintiduoguttata R96
    |--Tinzeda R96
    |    |--T. albosignata R96
    |    `--T. eburneata C70
    |--Polichne R96
    |    |--P. argentata R96
    |    `--P. parvicauda R96
    |--Poecilimon P05
    |    |--P. sanctipauli Brunner von Wattenwyl 1878 P05
    |    `--P. veluchianus FJ01
    |--Ceraia R18
    |    |--C. capra Rehn 1918 R18
    |    `--C. punctulata R18
    |--Anaulacomera R18
    |    |--A. albonodulosa R18
    |    `--A. nodulosa Stål 1873 R18
    |--Coelophyllum R18
    |    |--C. coriaceum (Pictet 1888) [=Prosagoga coriacea] R18
    |    `--C. rectinerve (Brunner 1891) [=Prosagoga rectinervis] R18
    |--Grammadera R15
    |    |--G. albida R15
    |    `--G. clara R15
    |--Phylloptera R15
    |    |--P. alliedea R15
    |    |--P. laurifolia B00
    |    `--P. spinulosa R15
    |--Microcentrum R15
    |    |--M. angustatum R15
    |    `--M. rhombifolium TW05
    |--Phaneroptera R96
    |    |--P. falcata K09
    |    |--P. gracilis R96
    |    `--P. quadripunctata R13
    |--Scaphura R18
    |    |--S. nigra R15
    |    |--S. nitida R18
    |    `--S. sphex Rehn 1918 R18
    `--Caedicia R96
         |--C. araucariae R96
         |--C. major R91
         |--C. marginata R96
         `--C. simplex R96

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[B00] Bordage, E. 1900. On the absence of regeneration in the posterior limbs of the Orthoptera saltatoria and its probable causes. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 5: 234–236.

[C70] CSIRO. 1970. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers. Melbourne University Press.

[FJ01] Field, L. H., & T. H. Jarman. 2001. Mating behaviour. In: Field, L. H. (ed.) The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies pp. 317–332. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[G37] Gurney, A. B. 1937. Collecting and biological notes on some minor orders of insects. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 39 (8): 239.

[I92] Imes, R. 1992. The Practical Entomologist. Aurum Press: London.

[K09] Köhler, G. 2009. Heuschrecken (Saltatoria) und Ohrwürmner (Dermaptera) im Immissionsgebiet des Düngemittelwerkes Steudnitz/Thüringen—eine Langzeitstudie (1978–2001). Mauritiana 20 (3): 601–646.

[P05] Papapavlou, K. P. 2005. New distributional data on the Orthoptera (Saltatoria) of the northern Dodecanese (“southern Sporadhes”) archipelago, Greece. Graellsia 61 (1): 3–11.

[R15] Rehn, J. A. G. 1915. A further contribution to the knowledge of the Orthoptera of Argentina. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 67 (2): 270–292.

[R18] Rehn, J. A. G. 1918. On a collection of Orthoptera from the State of Pará, Brazil. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 144–236, pls 1–2.

[R91] Rentz, D. C. F. 1991. Orthoptera (grasshoppers, locusts, katydids, crickets). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1 pp. 369–393. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[R96] Rentz, D. 1996. Grasshopper Country: The abundant orthopteroid insects of Australia. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[TW05] Terry, M. D., & M. F. Whiting. 2005. Mantophasmatodea and phylogeny of the lower neopterous insects. Cladistics 21: 240–257.